Sadaqah 4 Good Rules
Sadaqah is a general term referring to anything that is done or given for the acceptance of Allah and seeking His reward. The concept of sadaqah is wider than that of charity. The Prophet (ﷺ) said, ” Every good deed is a sadaqah.”
Zakah is a specific form of sadaqah. It is an obligatory expenditure due from those Muslims who possess wealth in excess of their fundamental needs. It is among the pillars of Islam and is the right of Allah, the Exalted, given for the benefit of the Muslim ummah. The word “zakah” means “purification and growth.” Its regular payment purifies the owner’s remaining wealth and purifies his heart from such ailments as greed and selfishness.
According to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam Sadaqah has five rewards: (i) one who offers Sadaqah prospers, (ii) Every disease is cured, (iii) Almighty Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’aala) keeps them away from calamities who offer Sadaqah, (iv) one who offers Sadaqah will cross the bridge of Siraat in a moment, and (v) The gates of Paradise will open for those who offer Sadaqah without accountability.
Hadrat Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said that Sadaqah closes seventy door of vice and it has four kinds. Firstly, Sadaqah should be given to the mendicants which have ten times more reward. Secondly, it should be given who deserved mercy which is rewarded seventy times more. Thirdly , it should be given to brothers which earned the reward for seven hundred times. Lastly, it should be given to a student which increased the reward for seven thousand times.
The last Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) Said that any deed of virtue and welfare was Sadaqah. it mean that Sadaqah is not limited to give away the material things e.g. money , food , clothes etc. Even an act which is committed with a view of welfare and peace is a Sadqah. For example judicious reconciliation between two persons, picking the baggage of an old persons , helping the children or blind to cross the road, offering help to a student in his studies and a lot more. Even reciting Kalimah, الحمد اللہ ، سبحان اللہ ، لا الہ الااللہ، offering prayers, fasting and performing Haj come in the category too. In short any virtuous act which is done for the welfare of any one and ultimately to achieve the pleasure of Almighty Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’aala) is Sadaqah.
Throughout the Makkan period the types of wealth from which zakah is due were not specified nor was the quantity, contributions being left to the discretion of the owner. In the second year following the hijrah, the zakah due from each kind of wealth was defined and clarified in detail.
Legal Status of Zakah
Zakah is an essential obligation according to the Qur’ān, the prophetic sunnah and the consensus of Muslim scholars.
In the Qur’ān, Allah said: “And those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah – give them tidings of a painful punishment.”
Then He ordered His Messenger (ﷺ):
“Take from their wealth a sadaqah by which you purify them and cause them increase.” And He ordered Muslims in general: “Establish prayer and give zakah and obey the Messenger – that you may receive mercy. The giving of zakah is mentioned in conjunction with Salah (prayer) in twenty-six Qur’anic verses.
- From the sunnah: When the Prophet (ﷺ) sent Mu‘ādh bin Jabal to the people of Yemen, among his instructions was, “Inform them that Allāh, the Mighty and Majestic, has made incumbent upon them a sadaqah to be taken from their rich and given to their ” And he (ﷺ) warned, “Whoever Allah has granted wealth but does not give its zakah – for him will be formed on the Day of Resurrection a poisonous snake with black growths over its eyes. It will wrap itself around his neck and then begin biting his cheeks, saying, ‘I am your treasure, I am your wealth.'” Then he recited:
“And let not those who withhold what Allah has given them of His bounty ever think that it is better for them. Rather, it is worse for them. Their necks will be encircled by what they with held on the Day of Resurrection.”
Being a pillar and fundamental requirement of Islām, anyone who denies the obligatory nature of zakāh (unless out of complete ignorance) has removed himself from the religion. One who acknowledges the obligation, although failing to fulfill it, remains a Muslim – albeit a disobedient one subject to severe punishment in the Hereafter. He is required to repent sincerely to Allah and pay whatever he had withheld in the past.
After the death of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) some of the Arab tribes refused to give zakah, claiming it had been due only during the Prophet’s lifetime. But Abu Bakr said, “By Allah, I will surely fight anyone who discriminates between salah and zakah.” ‘Umar and the other sauabah agreed that this was correct.
Who Must Give Zakah
Zakah is due from every Muslim possessing the nisab for particular kinds of wealth. Nisab refers to the minimum amount of any type of wealth from which zakah is taken, The Muslim who possesses this minimum or more must give a stipulated proportion of the entire amount a zakah. The zakah of a child or mentally deficient person who possesses the nisab is calculated and paid from his property by his legal guardian. It is not an obligation for a slave or a non-Muslim.
If a Muslim dies owing zakah, it is paid from his estate before its distribution. In fact, it takes priority over other debts and any bequests by the deceased, for the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The debt of Allah has the most right to be settled.”